Inextricably linked to all the most important historical and political events in Russia since the 13th century, the Kremlin (built between the 14th and 17th centuries by outstanding Russian and foreign architects) was the residence of the Great Prince and also a religious centre.
Red Square is the main square in Moscow. It is adjacent to the eastern wall of the Kremlin, the institutional seat of the Russian president. With an area of 74,831 square meters, it is one of the largest squares in the world.
The name "Red square" does not derive neither from the fact that the buildings and constructions around it are mostly red, nor from the connection between the red color and the communist ideology. The name comes from the Russian adjective красная (krasnaja), which means both "red" and, in the past, "beautiful": the adjective was originally applied (meaning "beautiful") only to the cathedral of San Basilio, and subsequently extended to the square where it stood. The square acquired its current name in the 17th century. Previously, it was called Požar, or "burnt place", since the wooden buildings that faced it were easily subject to fires.
On the square there are some historical monuments known all over the world, including the Cathedral of San Basilio, built in 1561 by Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible to celebrate the conquest of the new territories. In front of the cathedral is the monument to the national heroes Kuz'ma Minin and Dmitrij Požarskij, who in 1612 defeated and expelled the Polish invaders from Moscow. Near the monument there is an elevated platform, the 'Lobnoe mesto', which was used in some cases for executions but, mainly for solemn religious ceremonies and to announce various decrees. The Russian History Museum which is located across the square. Among the most interesting Soviet monuments are the Lenin mausoleum and the GUM state warehouses.
The Kremlin is a fortified citadel. It is the oldest part of the city and is home to Russia's national governmental institutions, as well as one of the nation's most important artistic and historical complexes. The western part of the Kremlin is surrounded by the Alexander Gardens, one of the first urban parks in Moscow.
The current walls and towers were built between 1485 and 1495. The entire development of the walls is 2,235 meters. The walls form a triangular area and 20 towers are arranged along the walls.